Background: Esophageal cancer is the eighth-most common cancer and the sixth-most common cause of cancer death worldwide. In Iran, its prevalence is high. Surgery is recommended for tumors in early stages.
Objectives: This study aims to determine demographic data, therapeutic approaches, postoperative mortality, and survival rate in patients with esophageal cancer who were managed in a referral hospital.
Methods: In a cohort study, the patients hospitalized during six-year period were evaluated. Demographic data, tumor characteristics, laboratory data, surgical approaches, and survival time were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using life tables, proportional hazard Cox regression, and the Kaplan-Meier method by SPSS version 20 software. Survival curves were compared by log-rank analysis.
Results: Over six years, 92 patients were admitted of which 54 (58.7%) were male. The average age was 63.08±12.03 years. Ten patients (10.8%) were below 50 years old. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most common type (85.8%). Fifty-three patients (57.6%) were selected for the surgery. Postoperative mortality in 30 days occurred in 7 patients (13.2%). The median survival rate was 12.8±2.92 months. The survival rate for one, three and five years were 51.94%, 24.67% and 19.48%, respectively. Two factors that had significant statistical correlation with median survival time were metastasis (P = 0.01) and vomiting (P = 0.003).
Conclusion: Esophageal cancer is a poor prognostic disease and esophagectomy is a morbid operation. To reduce postoperative mortality and increase the survival time, better patient selection and operations by expert surgeons must be considered.