Introduction: Neurofibromas, benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors, are the most common among neural lesion. Neurofibromas are rare in head and neck location, although it may involve any part of oral cavity. However, tongue is the most common region.
Case presentation: A 27 year-old man was admitted to Otorhinolaryngology Department due to a swelling in the base of his tongue, since two weeks before. This mass was painless, and without any associated symptoms. He was suffered from a mild eating disorder, too. He had no any positive past medical history, and only a large soft 6 × 5 cm mass was found at the base of his tongue without bleeding in the oral cavity. Excisional biopsy was performed for him under general anesthesia and the tumor was easily enucleated. The final diagnosis was neurofibroma. After the diagnosis of neurofibroma, the physical reexamination revealed a series of café au lait spots on his skin.
Conclusion: the neurofibroma should be considered by otorhinolaryngologist, as a differential diagnosis of tongue mass, and more accurate physical examination are recommended for better management.