Document Type: Original Article
Nursing Department, Health Science Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
Nursing Department, Health Science Faculty, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey
TOBB ETU Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
Introduction: Nurses who have difficulty balancing their family role and responsibilities because of intense work pressure tend to leave their current jobs to work in organizations which offer better working conditions, lower workloads, and more managerial support.
Objective: This study aimed to determine nurses’ work-family conflict (WFC), job satisfaction, and intention to leave the job in a private hospital.
Methods: This descriptive study is based on a methodological and causal research design. The population of the study included 98 nurses working in a private hospital. The research model is tested with structural equation modelling (SEM).
Results: Nurses working changing shifts reported statistically higher levels of work-to-family conflict and workload than those consistently working daytime shifts. Managerial support and workload explained 48% of WFC. Work structure alone explained 44% of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and WFC explained 17% of the variance in intention to leave.
Conclusion: Nurses who have difficulty balancing their family roles and responsibilities because of intense work pressure tend to leave their current jobs to work in organizations which offer better working conditions, lower workload, and more managerial support. The work structure of nurses should be reorganized in order to enhance nurses’ job satisfaction.
- Aiken LH, Sloane DM, Clarke S, et al. Importance of work environments on hospital outcomes in nine countries. Int J Qual Health Care. 2011;23(4):357-364. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzr022.
- Coomber B, Barriball KL. Impact of job satisfaction components on intent to leave and turnover for hospital-based nurses: a review of the research literature. Int J Nurs Stud. 2007;44(2):297-314. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.02.004.
- Hayes LJ, O’Brien-Pallas L, Duffield C, et al. Nurse turnover: a literature review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2006;43(2):237-263. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2005.02.007.
- Greenhaus JH, Beutell NJ. Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Acad Manage Rev. 1985;10(1):76-88. doi: 10.2307/258214.
- Anafarta N. The Relationship between work-family conflict and job satisfaction: a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. International Journal of Business and Management. 2011;6(4):168–77. doi: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n4p168.
- Yildirim D, Aycan Z. Nurses’ work demands and work-family conflict: a questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2008;45(9):1366-1378. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2007.10.010.
- Simunic A, Gregov L. Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2012;63(2):189-197. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2159.
- Patel CJ, Beekhan A, Paruk Z, Ramgoon S. Work-family conflict, job satisfaction and spousal support: an exploratory study of nurses’ experience. Curationis. 2008;31(1):38-44. doi: 10.4102/curationis.v31i1.906.
- Anderson SE, Coffey BS, Byerly RT. Formal organizational initiatives and informal workplace practices: links to work–family conflict and job-related outcomes. J Manage. 2002;28(6):787-810. doi: 10.1016/S0149-2063(02)00190-3.
- Burke RJ, Greenglass ER. Work-family conflict, spouse support, and nursing staff well-being during organizational restructuring. J Occup Health Psychol. 1999;4(4):327-336. doi: 10.1037/1076-89184.108.40.2067.
- Locke EA. What is Job Satisfaction? Organ Behav Hum Perf. 1969;4(4):309-336. doi: 10.1016/0030-5073(69)90013-0.
- Heinen MM, van Achterberg T, Schwendimann R, et al. Nurses’ intention to leave their profession: a cross sectional observational study in 10 European countries. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013;50(2):174-184. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.09.019.
- Spector PE, Allen TD, Poelmans SAY, et al. Cross-national differences in relationships of work demands, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions with work–family conflict. Pers Psychol. 2007;60(4):805-835. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00092.x.
- Poelmans SA, ed. Work and family: an international research perspective. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2005.
- Boles JS, Wood JA, Johnson J. Interrelationships of role conflict, role ambiguity, and work–family conflict with different facets of job satisfaction and the moderating effects of gender. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management. 2003;23(2):99-113. doi: 10.1080/08853134.2003.10748991.
- Lu H, While AE, Barriball KL. Job satisfaction among nurses: a literature review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2005;42(2):211-227. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.09.003.
- Aiken LH, Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Lake ET, Cheney T. Effects of hospital care environment on patient mortality and nurse outcomes. J Nurs Adm. 2008;38(5):223-229. doi: 10.1097/01.NNA.0000312773.42352.d7.
- Duxbury L, Higgins C. Interference between work and family. Employee Assistance Quarterly. 1994;9(3-4):55-80. doi: 10.1300/J022v09n03_05.
- Aycan Z, Eskin M. Childcare, spousal, and organizational support in predicting work-family conflict for females and males in dual-earner families with preschool children. Sex Roles. 2005;53(7):453-471. doi: 10.1007/s11199-005-7134-8.
- Galinsky E, Bond JT, Friedman DE. The role of employers in addressing the needs of employed parents. J Soc Issues. 1996;52(3):111-136. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1996. tb01582.x.
- Netemeyer RG, Boles JS, McMurrian R. Development and validation of work-family conflict and family-work conflict scales. J Appl Psychol. 1996;81(4):400-410. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.81.4.400.
- Dolbier CL, Webster JA, McCalister KT, Mallon MW, Steinhardt MA. Reliability and validity of a single-item measure of job satisfaction. Am J Health Promot. 2005;19(3):194-198. doi: 10.4278/0890-1171-19.3.194.
- Loehlin JC. Latent Variable Models: An Introduction to Factor, Path, and Structural Analysis. 4th ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2004.
- Jöreskog KG, Sörbom D. LISREL 8: User’s reference guide, scientific software international. North Lincoln Avenue, USA; 2004.
- Amstad FT, Meier LL, Fasel U, Elfering A, Semmer NK. A meta-analysis of work-family conflict and various outcomes with a special emphasis on cross-domain versus matching-domain relations. J Occup Health Psychol. 2011;16(2):151-169. doi: 10.1037/a0022170.
- Jeffrey Hill E, Yang C, Hawkins AJ, Ferris M. A cross-cultural test of the work-family interface in 48 countries. J Marriage Fam. 2004;66(5):1300-1316. doi:10.1111/j.0022- 2445.2004.00094.x.
- Blomme RJ, Van Rheede A, Tromp DM. Work-family conflict as a cause for turnover intentions in the hospitality industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research. 2010;10(4):269-285. doi: 10.1057/thr.2010.15.
- Zareifar S, Haghpanah S, Beigipour Z, Hosseini S, Molavi MA, Naderi M. Job satisfaction and stress levels of nurses working in oncology wards; a multicenter study. Galen Medical Journal. 2017;6(2):128-135.
- Hughes RL, Ginnett RC, Curphy GJ. Leadership - Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. 4th ed. New York, USA: McGraw- Hill; 2002.
- Brough P, Kalliath T. Work–family balance: theoretical and empirical advancements. J Organ Behav. 2009;30(5):581-585. doi: 10.1002/job.618.
- Van der Heijden BI, van Dam K, Hasselhorn HM. Intention to leave nursing: The importance of interpersonal work context, work-home interference, and job satisfaction beyond the effect of occupational commitment. Career Development International. 2009;14(7):616-635. doi: 10.1108/13620430911005681.