Background: From Gaya and adjoining regions, the trend in patients admitted with acute neurological illness was investigated. Illnesses were identified as sudden outbreaks of Japanese virus encephalitis (JE), Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSV-1&2), and other acute encephalitis syndrome (AES).
Objective: In the current study, an investigation was carried out to assess potential infectious pathogens in patients aged 16 years or younger who were admitted to Anugrah Narayan Magadh Memorial Medical College Hospital, Gaya, with encephalitis-like symptoms.
Methods: Cross-epidemiological, serological, and molecular biological studies were performed on samples collected from 71 patients below 16 years of age. Patients’ clinical histories, i.e. fever, socio-demographic characteristics, and other clinical data, were extracted from patient files.
Results: The results showed confirmed AES cases, including 49.30% JE and 7.04% HSV positive patients. A higher case-fatality rate of 40% in JE and 40% HSV cases below 7 years of age were observed during treatment would become an unavoidable concern. The epidemical sex ratio was observed to be higher in girls than in boys (1.26:1).
Conclusion: The results suggested that JE virus was found to be a main causative risk factor responsible for disease transmission in the outbreak area.