Background: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI ) are common types of acute coronary syndrome which are associated with the risk factors of age, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes.
Objective: The present study aimed to examine the effects of age on the risk factors and clinical symptoms of acute coronary syndrome.
Methods: A cross-section prospective study was conducted on 125 patients with acute coronary syndrome chosen by non-probability convenience sampling method in the coronary care unit in Sulaimani, the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Acute coronary syndrome types were diagnosed through clinical presentations, electrocardiography (ECG), and troponin test. Data was collected using a researcher-based checklist through face-to-face interviews.
Results: The results indicated that males were the dominant group. The age group 45-65 had the highest prevalence rate of acute coronary syndrome. The most frequent risk factors for acute coronary syndrome were hypertension (54.4%), dyslipidemia (52%), smoking (42.4%), and diabetes mellitus (38.4%). Typical chest pain was found to be the most frequent clinical presentation (88%). There was a significant difference between the age groups in terms of the effect of age on typical and atypical symptoms; however, neither age nor typical/atypical symptoms had a significant effect on type of acute coronary syndrome. Similarly, family history, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, and dyslipidemia had no effect on type of acute coronary syndrome.
Conclusion: Age is a predictive factor for acute coronary syndrome, but family history, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, and dyslipidemia cannot predict acute coronary syndrome.