Document Type : Review Article


1 Trauma Research Center and Faculty of Nursing, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Nursing, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA

5 Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6 Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan



Background: Management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in the world, is often associated with a variety of treatments and lifestyle modifications.
Objectives: In this review, the authors sought to identify and summarize self-care related behaviors in persons with CVD based on Orem’s self-care theory. By applying this theory, healthcare professionals can involve patients in their own care in a holistic way that can improve health outcomes.
Methods: A comprehensive review was conducted using the Web of Science, PubMed, Magiran, SIDS, Scopus, CINAHL, and Google Scholar databases. The results were organized into themes based on the Orem’s Self-care model for patients with CVD.
Results: A total of 1153 articles identified through databases. After excluding duplicated, unavailable or unqualified articles a total of 12 articles met all inclusion criteria and were included in this review and categorized into five major themes based on Orem’s self-care model for patients with cardiovascular diseases: basic conditioning factors and self-care agency, initiating and adhering to self-care activities, symptom recognition, and supportive nursing interventions and culture. The model suggests the patients should take responsibility for self-care behaviors; and nurses, peers, families and health systems can have a great impact on the level of self-care in these people with considering cultural factors.
Conclusion: Improving the well-being in people with cardiovascular diseases and reducing the related healthcare costs are achievable by promoting self-care behaviors based on culture, educational interventions, and monitoring the self-care over time as suggested by the model.