Document Type : Review Article
Obstetrics/Gynaecology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu, Jigawa State, Nigeria
Nursing Services Department, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Background: There is a renewed interest in job satisfaction among healthcare workers including nurses in Africa and the West African sub-region due to the perception that global shifts in the internal structures and employment practices are inducing changes in the ties that bind employees to their job. Therefore, it is necessary to examine various studies in order to establish an empirical base and utility for the theory of knowledge.
Objective: This paper reviewed some of the available literatures on factors affecting job satisfaction among nurses around the world with special focus on the African continent.
Methods: Electronic search of Medline, PubMed, Health Internetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), and Google Scholar databases up to 2014 was carried out for studies which analyzed the factors affecting job satisfaction of nurses around the world, Africa and West Africa.
Results: Although regional variations in levels of job satisfaction exist among nurses globally, there is more general trend of dissatisfaction and these are because of various factors related to the work environment. Nigerian nurses are generally more satisfied (as high as 92%) with their jobs when compared with their colleagues in other African countries. Socio-demographic and socioeconomic variables do not affect job satisfaction as much as leadership styles, promotion and other features related to the work environment.
Conclusion: Strong leadership style is a probable reason why nurses in Nigeria are more satisfied with their jobs when compared with their colleagues in other countries even though they may work for longer hours or earn relatively less salaries.
- Donuk B. The comparison of the job satisfactions of the sport managers who work private and public sectors. Selcuk Univ Sosyal Bilim Enstit Dergisi. 2009;21:179-85.
- Ogiwara S, Araki H. Job satisfaction among physiotherapists in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. J Phys Ther Sci. 2006;18(2):127-32. doi: 10.1589/jpts.18.127
- Ofili A, Asuzu M, Isah E, Ogbeide O. Job satisfaction and psychological health of doctors at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Occup Med. 2004;54(6):400-3. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqh081
- Saheeb B, Mafeni J. Job satisfaction among Nigerian dental practitioners. Niger Quarter J Hosp Med. 1999;9(1):42-6. doi: 10.4314/nqjhm.v9i1.12338
- Luzzi L, Spencer A, Jones K, Teusner D. Job satisfaction of registered dental practitioners. Aust Dent J. 2005;50(3):179-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2005.tb00358.x
- Hu J, Liu H. Job satisfaction among nurses in China. Home Health Care Manag Pract. 2004;17(1):9-13. doi: 10.1177/1084822304268154
- Oyeyemi AY. Job satisfaction traits of Nigerian physical therapists. Physiother Theory Pract. 2001;17(4):257-68. doi: 10.1080/095939801753385753
- Amoran O, Omokhodion F, Dairo M, Adebayo A. Job satisfaction among primary health care workers in three selected local government areas in southwest Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2004;14(2):195-9.
- Kaldenberg DO, Regrut B. Do satisfied patients depend on satisfied employees? Or, do satisfied employees depend on satisfied patients? QRC Advis. 1999;15(7):9.
- Spector PE. Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences: Sage publications; 1997.
- Sousa-Poza A, Sousa-Poza AA. Well-being at work: a cross-national analysis of the levels and determinants of job satisfaction. J Socio Econ. 2000;29(6):517-38. doi: 10.1016/S1053-5357(00)00085-8
- Lund DB. Organizational culture and job satisfaction. J Bus Ind Mark. 2003;18(3):219-36. doi: 10.1108/0885862031047313
- Locke E. The nature and causes of job satisfaction in MD. Handbook of Individual and organizational Psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally; 1976.
- Ghazali SSA, Shah IA, Zaidi SAA, Tahir M. Job satisfaction among doctors working at teaching hospital of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2007;19(3):81-3.
- Moodley P, Coopoo Y. Job satisfaction of self employed trainers and personal trainers employed at commercial gymnasiums: a comparative study. SA J Res Sport Phys Edu. 2006;28(2):105. doi: 10.4314/sajrs.v28i2.25947
- Carrim NM, Basson JS, Coetzee M. The relationship between job satisfaction and locus of control in a South African call centre environment. S Afr J Labour Relations. 2006;30(2):66-81.
- Willem A, Buelens M, De Jonghe I. Impact of organizational structure on nurses’ job satisfaction: A questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2007;44(6):1011-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.03.013
- Lephoko CS, Bezuidenhout MC, Roos JH. Organisational climate as a cause of job dissatisfaction among nursing staff in selected hospitals within the Mpumalanga Province. Curationis. 2006;29(4):28-36.
- Rose M. editor Disparate measures in the workplace... Quantifying overall job satisfaction. BHPS Research Conference, Colchester; 2001: Citeseer.
- Ugwa EA. A cross-sectional study of job satisfaction and leadership styles among the nurses in Aminu Kano teaching hospital. Niger J Basic Clin Sci. 2014;11(2):114. doi: 10.4103/0331-8540.140363
- Chaulagain N, Khadka DK. Factors influencing job satisfaction among healthcare professionals at Tilganga eye centre, Kathmandu, Nepal. Age. 2012;35(56):74.67.
- Blaauw D, Ditlopo P, Maseko F, Chirwa M, Mwisongo A, Bidwell P, et al. Comparing the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Glob Health Action. 2013;6:19287. doi: 10.3402/gha.v6i0.19287
- Tshitangano TG. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2013;5(1). doi: 10.4102/phcfm.v5i1.479
- Ugwa EA, Muhammad LM, Ugwa CC. Job satisfaction among nurses and doctors in a Tertiary Hospital in North-Western Nigeria: a cross-sectional study. Int J Hosp Res. 2014;3(1):11-8.
- Ugwa E, Ugwa C. A survey of job satisfaction among nurses and its correlate in a tertiary healthcare in Northern Nigeria. J National Accreditation Board Hosp Healthcare Providers. 2014;1(2):29. doi: 10.4103/2348-6139.151294
- van der Doef M, Mbazzi FB, Verhoeven C. Job conditions, job satisfaction, somatic complaints and burnout among East African nurses. J Clin Nurs. 2012;21(11‐12):1763-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03995.x
- Kekana H, Du Rand E, Van Wyk N. Job satisfaction of registered nurses in a community hospital in the Limpopo Province in South Africa. Curationis. 2007;30(2):24-35. doi: 10.4102/curationis.v30i2.1068
- Erasmus B. Nursing professionals’ views on the workplace. Curationis. 1998;21(4):50-7. doi: 10.4102/curationis.v21i4.676
- Chirwa ML, Greeff M, Kohi TW, Naidoo JR, Makoae LN, Dlamini PS, et al. HIV stigma and nurse job satisfaction in five African countries. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2009;20(1):14-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jana.2008.10.001
- 30. Pillay R. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors. Hum Resour Health. 2009;7(1):15. doi: 10.1186/1478-4491-7-15
- Bester C, Richter E, Boshoff A. Prediction of nurses' job satisfaction level. Curationis. 1997;20(4):59-63.
- Uys L, Minnaar A, Reid S, Naidoo J. The perceptions of nurses in a district health system in KwaZulu-Natal of their supervision, self-esteem and job satisfaction. Curationis. 2004;27(2):50-6. doi: 10.4102/curationis.v27i2.976
- Delobelle P, Rawlinson JL, Ntuli S, Malatsi I, Decock R, Depoorter AM. Job satisfaction and turnover intent of primary healthcare nurses in rural South Africa: a questionnaire survey. J Adv Nurs. 2011;67(2):371-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05496.x
- Hart P. The nurse shortage: Perspectives from current direct care nurses and former direct care nurses. Peter D Hart Research Associates The Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals. 2001:20.
- Lundh U. Job satisfaction among Swedish nurses and laboratory technologists. Br J Nurs. 1999;8(14):948-52. doi: 10.12968/bjon.19184.108.40.20646
- Suliman WA, Abu Gharbieh P. Jordanian nurses: job dissatisfaction and anticipated withdrawal from practice. Dirasat Med Biol Sci. 1996;23:76-87.
- Fung‐kam L. Job satisfaction and autonomy of Hong Kong registered nurses. J Adv Nurs. 1998;27(2):355-63. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.1998.00527.x
- Hackman JR, Oldham GR. Development of the job diagnostic survey. J Appl Psychol. 1975;60(2):159. doi: 10.1037/h0076546
- Katz D. Morale and motivation in industry. 1949.
- Herzberg F, Mausner B, Snyderman BB. The motivation to work: Transaction publishers; 2011.
- Hackman JR, Lawler EE. Employee reactions to job characteristics. J Appl Psychol. 1971;55(3):259. doi: 10.1037/h0031152
- Porter LW, Lawler EE. Managerial attitudes and performance. 1968.
- Vroom VH. Work and motivation: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company; 1982.
- Aiken LH, Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Sochalski JA, Busse R, Clarke H, et al. Nurses’ reports on hospital care in five countries. Health Aff. 2001;20(3):43-53. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.20.3.43
- Herzberg F. One more time: how do you motivate employees? 1968. Harv Bus Rev. 2003;81(1):87-96.
- Uys LR, Minnaar A, Simpson B, Reid S. The effect of two models of supervision on selected outcomes. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2005;37(3):282-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2005.00048.x
- Kamanzi J, Nkosi ZZ. Motivation levels among nurses working at Butare University teaching hospital, Rwanda. Afr J Nurs Midwifery. 2011;13(2):119-131.
- Jayasuriya R, Whittaker M, Halim G, Matineau T. Rural health workers and their work environment: the role of inter-personal factors on job satisfaction of nurses in rural Papua New Guinea. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:156. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-156
- Awosusi OO, Jegede AO. Motivation and job performances among nurses in the Ekiti State Environment of Nigeria. Int J Pharma Bio Sci. 2011;2(2):B583-B95.
- Lu H, While AE, Barriball KL. Job satisfaction among nurses: a literature review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2005;42(2):211-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.09.003
- Giallonardo LM, Wong CA, Iwasiw CL. Authentic leadership of preceptors: predictor of new graduate nurses' work engagement and job satisfaction. J Nurs Manag. 2010;18(8):993-1003. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2010.01126.x
- Wong CA, Laschinger HK. Authentic leadership, performance, and job satisfaction: the mediating role of empowerment. J Adv Nurs. 2013;69(4):947-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06089.x
- Hamama L, Tartakovsky E, Eroshina K, Patrakov E, Golubkova A, Bogushevich J, et al. Nurses' job satisfaction and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS in Russia. Int Nurs Rev. 2014;61(1):131-9. doi: 10.1111/inr.12074
- Al-Ahmadi H. Factors affecting performance of hospital nurses in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. Int J Health Care Qual Assur. 2009;22(1):40-54. doi: 10.1108/09526860910927943
- Goldman A, Tabak N. Perception of ethical climate and its relationship to nurses’ demographic characteristics and job satisfaction. Nurs Ethics. 2010;17(2):233-46. doi: 10.1177/0969733009352048
- Kinzl J, Knotzer H, Traweger C, Lederer W, Heidegger T, Benzer A. Influence of working conditions on job satisfaction in anaesthetists. Br J Anaesth. 2005;94(2):211-5. doi: 10.1093/bja/aei035