Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of General Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Badrud Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of General Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

3 Islamic Azad University, Kish Branch, Bushehr, Iran



Background: Hospitalization due to any reason or medical condition is associated with fear, anxiety, and depression. Psychological and physiological factors have a significant impact on hospitalization outcomes.
Objectives: Given the functional importance of inflammatory cytokines and studies in previous studies on the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and major depressive disorder, we will focus more on studies on the role of interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder in hospitalized patients.
Methods: We used PubMed, Scopus, and Elsevier databases to search for articles from 1999 to 2021, emphasizing the studies of the last five years.
Results: In general, there was no consistent pattern in the observed relationships between cytokine concentrations or changes and clinical signs of significant depression. IL-2 and IL, two receptors in the body, play an essential role in the treatment and the pathophysiology of depression and major depression.
Conclusion: Finally, it can be concluded that hospitalization generally exposes the patient to inflammation. Studies show an increased risk of inflammation following hospitalization of patients, and many studies confirm the association of major depression with inflammatory cytokines and, more concentrated, IL-2.