Document Type : Original Article


1 Health Research Center & Health Education Department, Faculty of Health, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Health Management Research Center & Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Management, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Background: Common cancers such as colon, breast, and lung cancer are increasing in developing countries.
Objective: This study was conducted to determine 10-year trends and changes in common cancers in patients from a referral hospital in Tehran, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated a study population comprising colon, stomach, lung, prostate, and breast cancer patients registered at the cancer center of a referral hospital in Tehran, Iran from April 1, 2007 to the end of March, 2016 (n=4472). Inclusion criteria were a definitive diagnosis of cancer and an age between 15 and 75 years. Data was entered into SPSS (version 18) software and analyzed using the Time Series analysis and Scatter IO graph.
Results: Significant correlations (P value <0.001) were seen between age increases in patients and the increasing number of patients in any type of cancer. With almost all of the five studied cancers, incidence increased with aging (P value <0.001). The incremental linear trend in the age of patients with lung (P value = 0.008) and colon (P value = 0.004) cancers and the decreasing trend in the age of prostate cancer patients (P value = 0.001) were statistically significant.
Conclusion: The incidence of cancer has increased over the past 10 years in both genders and ages. It is suggested that future studies should address the causes and factors behind the increasing incidence of common cancers.


  1. Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65(2):87- 108. doi10.3322/caac.21262.
  2. Torre LA, Siegel RL, Ward EM, Jemal A. Global Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates and Trends--An Update. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016;25(1):16-27. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0578.
  3. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer. 2015;136(5):E359-386. doi:10.1002/ijc.29210.
  4. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61(2):69-90. doi:10.3322/caac.20107.
  5. Popkin BM. Global changes in diet and activity patterns as drivers of the nutrition transition. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2009;63:1-10; discussion 10-14, 259-268. doi:10.1159/000209967.
  6. Shafey O, Dolwick S, Guindon GE. Tobacco control country profiles. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2003. p. 356.
  7. Kanavos P. The rising burden of cancer in the developing world. Ann Oncol. 2006;17 Suppl 8:viii15-viii23. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdl983.
  8. Center MM, Jemal A, Smith RA, Ward E. Worldwide variations in colorectal cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009;59(6):366-378. doi:10.3322/caac.20038.
  9. Garcia M, Jemal A, Ward EM, et al. Global cancer facts & figures 2007. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2007;1(3):52.
  10. Thun MJ, DeLancey JO, Center MM, Jemal A, Ward EM. The global burden of cancer: priorities for prevention. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31(1):100-110. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgp263.
  11. Pakzad R, Rafiemanesh H, Ghoncheh M, et al. Prostate Cancer in Iran: Trends in Incidence and Morphological and Epidemiological Characteristics. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(2):839-843. doi: 10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.839.
  12. Enayatrad M, Amoori N, Salehiniya H. Epidemiology and trends in breast cancer mortality in iran. Iran J Public Health. 2015;44(3):430-431.
  13. Rahimi F, Heidari M. Time trend analysis of stomach cancer incidence in the west of Iran. Health and Development Journal. 2012;1(2):100-111. [Persian].
  14. Ferlay J, Wild CP, Bray F. The Burden of Cancer Worldwide: Current and Future Perspectives. Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine. 2016;17:1-5. doi:10.1002/9781119000822.hfcm034.
  15. Boutayeb A, Boutayeb S. The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. Int J Equity Health. 2005;4(1):2. doi:10.1186/1475-9276-4-2.
  16. Karim-Kos HE, de Vries E, Soerjomataram I, Lemmens V, Siesling S, Coebergh JW. Recent trends of cancer in Europe: a combined approach of incidence, survival and mortality for 17 cancer sites since the 1990s. Eur J Cancer. 2008;44(10):1345-1389. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2007.12.015.
  17. Jemal A, Vineis P, Bray F, Torre L, Forman D. The Cancer Atlas. 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2014.
  18. Mousavi SM, Montazeri A, Mohagheghi MA, et al. Breast cancer in Iran: an epidemiological review. Breast J. 2007;13(4):383-391. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4741.2007.00446.x.
  19. Smith RA. The value of modern mammography screening in the control of breast cancer: understanding the underpinnings of the current debates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014;23(7):1139-1146. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0946.
  20. Moghimi-Dehkordi B, Safaee A, Zali MR. Prognostic factors in 1,138 Iranian colorectal cancer patients. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008;23(7):683-688. doi:10.1007/s00384-008-0463-7.
  21. Lieberman DA, Weiss DG, Bond JH, Ahnen DJ, Garewal H, Chejfec G. Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(3):162-168. doi:10.1056/NEJM200007203430301.
  22. Thun M, Peto R, Boreham J, Lopez AD. Stages of the cigarette epidemic on entering its second century. Tob Control. 2012;21(2):96-101. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050294.
  23. Gu D, Wu X, Reynolds K, et al. Cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in China: the international collaborative study of cardiovascular disease in Asia. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(11):1972-1976. doi:10.2105/AJPH.94.11.1972.
  24. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2008.
  25. Center MM, Jemal A, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al. International variation in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eur Urol. 2012;61(6):1079-1092. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.02.054.
  1. Baade PD, Youlden DR, Krnjacki LJ. International epidemiology of prostate cancer: geographical distribution and secular trends. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53(2):171-184. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700511.
  2. Greenwald P. Clinical trials in cancer prevention: current results and perspectives for the future. J Nutr. 2004;134(12 Suppl):3507S-3512S. doi:10.1093/jn/134.12.3507S.
  3. Chen W, Zheng R, Baade PD, et al. Cancer statistics in China, 2015. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016;66(2):115-132. doi:10.3322/caac.21338.
  4. Plummer M, Franceschi S, Vignat J, Forman D, de Martel C. Global burden of gastric cancer attributable to Helicobacter pylori. Int J Cancer. 2015;136(2):487-490. doi:10.1002/ijc.28999.
  5. Mohebbi M, Mahmoodi M, Wolfe R, et al. Geographical spread of gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence in the Caspian Sea region of Iran: spatial analysis of cancer registry data. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:137. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-137.
  6. Uemura N, Okamoto S, Yamamoto S, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastric cancer. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(11):784-789. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa001999.
  7. Jukic Z, Radulovic P, Stojkovic R, et al. Gender Difference in Distribution of Estrogen and Androgen Receptors in Intestinal-type Gastric Cancer. Anticancer Res. 2017;37(1):197-202. doi:10.21873/anticanres.11306.